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The word psychosis is used to describe conditions that affect the mind, where there has been some loss of contact with reality. When someone becomes ill in this way, it is called a psychotic episode. During a period of psychosis, a person’s thoughts and perceptions are disturbed, and the individual may have difficulty understanding what is real and what is not. 

What causes psychosis? 

There is no one specific cause of psychosis. Psychosis may be a symptom of a mental illness, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, a person may experience psychosis and never be diagnosed with schizophrenia or any other mental disorder. There are other causes, such as sleep deprivation, general medical conditions, certain prescription medications, and the misuse of alcohol or
other drugs, such as marijuana. A mental illness, such as schizophrenia, is typically diagnosed by excluding all of these other causes of psychosis. 

To receive a thorough assessment and accurate diagnosis, visit a qualified health care professional (such as a psychologist, psychiatrist, or social worker 

Signs and symptoms:  

● Sudden drop in grades or job performance 

● New trouble thinking clearly or concentrating 

● Suspiciousness, paranoid ideas, or uneasiness with others 

● Withdrawing socially, spending a lot more time alone than usual 

● Unusual, overly intense new ideas, strange feelings, or no feelings at all 

● Decline in self-care or personal hygiene 

● Difficulty telling reality from fantasy 

● Confused speech or trouble communicating 

1. Schizophrenia is a long term mental disorder, where a person starts living in an imaginary world. He/she fails to recognize what’s real. 

Schizophrenia is a complete breakdown in relation between thought, emotion and behaviour, which results in significant deterioration in the level of functioning in everyday life. 

People suffering from Schizophrenia, have very low levels of motivation and most of the times are emotionally flat. The chemical named dopamine found in the brain is at work in this disorder wherein the dopamine receptor activity becomes abnormal under this type of disorder. 

The suicide rate among people suffering from schizophrenia is very high, making it very important to start the treatment at the right time. 

Professional counselling, social rehabilitation are very important part in treatment of a schizophrenic patient. 


  • Losing interest in everyday activities like bathing, grooming and getting dressed. 

  • Isolating one-self (example: not leaving the house for days) 

  • Changes in sleeping cycle 

  • Losing interest and motivation in life and activities, including relationship and sex. 

  • Unable to concentrate on anything clearly. 

  • Disorganized speech and behaviour 

  • Hallucinations (auditory, visual, tactile, olfactory and gustatory) 

  • Delusions 

  • Low levels of motivation

2. Schizo-Affective Disorder is defined as the uninterrupted period of illness during which a person experiences a combination of schizophrenia symptoms like hallucinations and delusions and mood disorder symptoms such as mania and depression. 

Schizo-Affective Disorder is not attributed to substance use, and is diagnosed under schizophrenia, if the symptoms occur only for a brief period of time. 

Schizo-affective disorder is characterised by abnormal thought process and deregulated emotions resulting in social isolation and difficulties in self care. 


  • Paranoid thoughts 

  • Social isolation 

  • Confusion 

  • Poor personal hygiene 

  • Change in appetite 

  • Frequent thought of suicide 

  • Speaking too quickly 

  • Hyperactive/manic mood 

  • Depression/irritability 

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